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Online collection Wiedergutmachung for
National Socialist Injustice

Maps

The maps provide information about the geographic scope of Wiedergutmachung. They intend to facilitate and promote further research and a better understanding of the topic.

Farbige Europakarte mit Darstellung der Ausdehnung des Machtbereichs des nationalsozialistischen Regimes von 1938 bis 1942/43 sowie der verbündeten, neutralen und gegnerischen Staaten.
Europe 1938-1942/43 | Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (bpb.de): Information für politische Bildung No. 316/2012. Protected by copyright, Kämmer-Kartographie Berlin

National Socialist persecution affected people in Germany and in many other European countries. The map illustrates the greatest extent of the sphere of control of the National Socialist regime and the Axis Powers in Europe in 1942/43.

Europakarte, blau eingefärbt die Bereiche des Deutschen Reichs und dessen Konzentrations- und Vernichtungslager, diese sind jeweils als Punkt auf der Karte eingezeichnet. Verbündete Staaten sind braun, besetzte Staaten grün und neutrale Staaten gelb eingefärbt
Concentration and extermination camps 1942 | Protected by copyright, Kämmer-Kartographie Berlin

The map shows the locations of the concentration and extermination camps and of the killing centers of the so-called euthanasia program (Aktion T-4) in 1942. In order to apply for compensation, former prisoners needed to name and specify the camp where they suffered damages. The 6th BEG Implementation Ordinance (BGBl. 1967 I, pp. 233-254 PDF) provides an overview of the places of detention qualifying as concentration camps under the Federal Compensation Act (BEG).

Zwei Karten in einem Bild. Die obere Karte zeigt Historische deutsche Siedlungsgebiete, welche farbig nach dem Jahr der Besiedlung eingezeichnet sind. Die Legende im oberen linken Bildrand erklärt die abgebildeten Gebiete des Deutschen Reiches östlich der Oder/Neiße-Linie und aus den deutschen Siedlungsräumen im Osten Europas. Die Legende am rechten Seitenrand listet Städte auf, die hier betroffen waren. Die untere Karte stellt zahlenmäßig dar, wie viele Deutsche 1937 außerhalb Deutschlands gelebt haben.
Historical German settlement areas | Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (bpb.de): Information für politische Bildung No. 340/2019. Design: mr-kartographie, Gotha.

The end of the Second World War resulted in the expulsion of the German population from the territories of the German Reich east of the Oder-Neisse line and from the German settlement areas in Eastern Europe. In order to facilitate their integration into the federal territory, expellees received compensatory payments for losses caused by the expulsion. Victims of National Socialist persecution who had left the later territories of expulsion but would have been expelled after 1945 anyway (so-called Fiktivvertriebene) were also entitled to these payments.

Karte mit farbiger Einteilung der Besatzungszonen in Deutschland 1947,  darunter eine Legende
Occupation zones | BArch, Plak004-002-002 "Atlanta Service" Frankfurt am Main. Design and distribution on behalf of the Allied Military Government 1947, printed by Karl W. Schilling Heilbronn.

After the end of the Second World War, the victorious powers divided Germany into four occupation zones, with the areas east of the Oder-Neisse line falling to Poland and the Soviet Union. The occupation zones implemented first Wiedergutmachung provisions in the newly established Länder, which led to patchwork of different regulations.

Karte Europa, Deutsches Reich in den Grenzen von 1937 farbig hervorgerufen in der Mitte mit Abbildung der Außengrenzen, Legende mit Zeichenerklärung unten rechts
German territory of 1937 | BArch, Plak 005-048-011. Designed by: n.d. Publisher: Bundeszentrale für Heimatdienst.

The map illustrates Germany’s political organization in the early 1950s in combination with the external borders of the German Reich of 1937. The dark pink region refers to the Federal Republic of Germany with the West German Länder. The GDR territory with the East German Länder (dissolved in 1952) appears in pale pink. The light pink regions show the Eastern territories that fell to Poland and the Soviet Union after the Second World War. The territory of the German Reich within the borders of December 31, 1937, was sometimes crucial for compensation applications under the Federal Compensation Act (BGBl. 1956 I, pp. 559-596 PDF), as it decided on the right to apply (Section 4 I No. 1c) or on the recognition of damages (e.g. Section 50 I).

Europa-Karte für den Zeitraum 1945 bis 1989 mit Einzeichnung verschiedener Grenzen, u.a. des "Eisernen Vorhangs" des Warschauer Pakts oder der Grenze BRD und DDR
Europe 1945-1989 | Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (bpb.de). Protected by copyright, Kämmer-Kartographie Berlin

After the end of the Second World War, Europe fell into two blocs because of the East-West conflict. The former victims of National Socialist persecution in Eastern Europe in particular received little or no compensation during the Cold War.

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